See Bill of Lading
Safe working practice code for solid bulk cargo.
BSI Container Specification
British Standards Institution Specification for freight containers.
The return movement of a means of transport which has provided a transport service
in one direction.
Back letters are drawn up in addition to a contract in order to lay down rights
and/or obligations between both contracting parties, which, for some reason cannot
be included in the original contract.
This expression is sometimes used for letters of indemnity, which are drawn up if
the condition of the goods loaded gives rise to remarks and, nevertheless, the shipper
insists upon receiving clean Bills of Lading. Letters of indemnity are only allowed
in very exceptional circumstances.
A customer order or commitment, which is unfilled due to insufficient stock.
A method of obtaining a production schedule by working backwards from the required
due date in order to predict the latest start date consistent with meeting that
The quantity of goods still to be delivered, received, produced, issued, etc., for
which the planned or agreed date has expired.
The total number of customer orders which have been received but not yet been shipped.
The balespace of a vessel is the capacity of cargo spaces under deck (including
hatchways but excluding void spaces behind cargo battens and beams) expressed in
cubic meters or cubic feet.
Materials solely carried to improve the trim and the stability of the vessel. In
vessels usually water is carried as ballast in tanks, specially designed for that
An undertaking by a bank to be answerable for payment of a sum of money in the event
of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.
For marine purposes the practice of always keeping more than one piece of cargo
on the quay or in the vessel ready for loading or discharging in order to avoid
delays and to obtain optimal use of the loading gear.
An EDI message to convey the Bayplan on occupied and empty slots in a certain vessel
at a particular time.
A method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes
are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels,
or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic
readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system.
Bar codes represent letters and/or numbers and special characters like +, /, -,
Bare Boat Charter
A charter whereby the charterer leases the bare ship and appoints the master and
Flat bottomed inland cargo vessel for canals and rivers with or without own propulsion
for the purpose of transporting goods.
Special devices mounted on container doors to provide a watertight locking.
Home depot of container or trailer.
Items of an inventory intended for issue against demand during the re-supply lead
A collection of products or data which is treated as one entity with respect to
certain operations e.g. processing and production.
A definite quantity of some product manufactured or produced under conditions which
are presumed uniform and for production control purposes passing as a unit through
the same series of operations.
The production process where products/components are produced in batches and where
each separate batch consists of a number of the same products/components.
Members protruding from the inside walls of a vessel's hold or a (thermal) container
to keep away the cargo from the walls to provide an air passage. They may be integral
with the walls, fastened to the walls or added during cargo handling.
A vertical division of a vessel from stem to stern, used as a part of the indication
of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers
indicate a 20 foot position, even numbers indicate a 40 foot position.
A stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.
back to top
Abbreviation: B.T. Wagen
A container wagon of the German Railways.
The measurement and comparison with a standard or others of efforts and results
in the business process for e.g. input, output, reliability, quality and customer
Note: For P&O Nedlloyd it is the comparative search for the best practices (processes)
that will lead to superior performance of the company.
It must be seen as a positive and pro-active process to make the company's operations
lean and improve quality and productivity.
Is the result of vertical forces acting on a ship as a result of local differences
between weight and buoyancy.
The total of these forces should be zero, otherwise change of draft will occur.
At sea the bending moment will change as a result of wave impact which than periodically
changes the buoyancy distribution.
Note: The maximum allowed bending moment of a vessel is restricted by the class
bureau to certain limits, which are different under port and sea conditions.
The most restrictive loading gauge (standard measure) or the lowest common denominator
of loading gauges on the railways of continental Europe.
A location in a port where a vessel can be moored often indicated by a code or name.
The provision to a client of examples and constructive consultation for improved
logistics processes in the delivery of goods and services.
Bilateral Transport Agreement
Agreement between two nations concerning their transport relations.
Bill of Exchange
An unconditional order in writing to pay a certain sum of money to a named person.
Bill of Health
The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical authorities indicating
the general health conditions in the port of departure or in the ports of call.
The Bill of Health must have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country
When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has a clean Bill of
Health certifying that there is no question of contagious disease and that all quarantine
regulations have been complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.
Bill of Lading
Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L
A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.
The document has the following functions:
A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorised person on behalf of the carriers.
A document of title to the goods described therein.
Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed upon between the two parties.
At the moment 3 different models are used:
A document for either Combined Transport or Port to Port shipments depending whether
the relevant spaces for place of receipt and/or place of delivery are indicated
on the face of the document.
A classic marine Bill of Lading in which the carrier is also responsible for the
part of the transport actually performed by himself.
Sea Waybill: A non-negotiable document, which can only be made out to a named consignee.
No surrender of the document by the consignee is required.
See also: Service Bill
Bill of Lading Clause
A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause
can be standard and can be pre-printed on the B/L.
Bill of Material
A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular
assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.
A road semi-trailer with retractable running gear to allow mounting on a pair of
A trailer which is able to carry different types of standardised unit loads, (e.g.
a chassis which is appropriate for the carriage of one FEU or two TEU's).
Support mounted on the bridge deck to hold the compass.
A number of railway wagons (loaded with containers), departing from a certain place
and running straight to a place of destination, without marshalling, transhipping
or any coupling or de-coupling of wagons.
A small open decked craft carried on board ships for a specific purpose e.g. lifeboat,
Person who attends to the mooring and unmooring of vessels.
Post, fixed to a quay or a vessel, for securing mooring ropes.
See Container Bolster
In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.
The storage of certain goods under charge of customs viz. customs seal until the
import duties are paid or until the goods are taken out of the country.
Bonded warehouse (place where goods can be placed under bond).
Bonded store (place on a vessel where goods are placed behind seal until the time
that the vessel leaves the port or country again).
Bonded goods (dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid i.e. goods in
transit or warehoused pending customs clearance).
The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering
by the carrier or his agent.
Booking Reference Number
The number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or his agent.
Document used in road transport, listing the cargo carried on a road vehicle, often
referring to appended copies of the road consignment note.
A stage in a process which limits performance.
Note: Generally this is interpreted as a facility, function, department etc. that
impedes performance, for example a warehouse or distribution centre where goods
arrive at a faster rate than they can be transported or stored, thus causing stock-piling
at improper moments or in unwanted areas.
Special conical shaped devices inserted between a container and the permanent floor
on the deck of a vessel in order to avoid shifting of the container during the voyage
of this vessel.
Handling of containers with equipment attached to the four bottom corner fittings
Money borrowed against a ship, or its equipment, repaid with interest upon the ship's
arrival at port, and forfeited should the ship sink
Machine located towards the forward end of a ship below the waterline, which can
produce a lateral trust mostly by means of a propeller.
Colloquial name for container (e.g. Box-club)
Pallet with at least three fixed, removable or collapsible, vertical sides.
See Distribution Centre
To commence discharge.
To strip unitised cargo.
Break Bulk Cargo
General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll
On-Roll Off cargo.
The weight at which it is cheaper to charge the lower rate for the next higher weight-break
multiplied by the minimum weight indicated, than to charge the higher rate for the
actual weight of the shipment.
A structure on board a ship, fixed to an open deck forward intended to deflect and
disperse head seas shipped over the bow.
The cargo space which is unavoidably lost when stowing cargo. The percentage of
wasted space depends upon e.g. the kind of cargo, the packing and the used spaces.
Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
The old Customs Co-operation Council Nomenclature for the classification of goods.
Now replaced by the Harmonised System.
A quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages
Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container
e.g. oil and grain.
Single deck vessel designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes such as grain,
iron ore and coal.
A container designed for the carriage of free-flowing dry cargoes, which are loaded
through hatchways in the roof of the container and discharged through hatchways
at one end of the container.
Upright partition dividing compartments on board a vessel. The functions of bulkheads
To increase the safety of a vessel by dividing it into compartments.
To separate the engine room from the cargo holds.
To increase the transverse strength of a vessel.
To reduce the risk of spreading fire to other compartments.
A vertically mounted board to provide front wall protection against shifting cargo
and commonly seen on platform trailers (road cargo).
A partition in a container, providing a plenum chamber and/or air passage for either
return or supply air. It may be an integral part of the appliance or a separate
A vertically mounted wall separating the fore respectively aft compartment from
the rest of the aircraft (air cargo).
Rings for lashing the cargo in containers.
Specialised reports for specific activity related events.
(Tank) spaces on board a vessel to store fuel.
Bunker Adjustment Factor
Adjustment applied by P&O Nedlloyd or liner conferences to offset the effect
of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.
Quantity of fuel on board a vessel.
The upward force extended by the vertical component of integrated pressure acting
on the hull below the waterline; usually calculated as being equal to the weight
of the water displaced by the hull.
French classification society.
The process of investigating and evaluating an organisation to clarify processes
Business Data Repository (BDR)
The accumulation of business data taken from a system to reuse this data in other
An upper level business activity that is achieved via the performance of component
activities. Examples: Manufacturing, Shipping
Logistics within a business system.
The co-ordinating function of material management and physical distribution, which
executes the integral control of the goods flow.
A business process is the action taken to respond to particular events, convert
inputs into outputs, and produce particular results. Business processes are what
the enterprise must do to conduct its business successfully.
Business Process Model
The business process model provides a breakdown (process decomposition) of all levels
of business processes within the scope of a business area. It also shows process
dynamics, lower-level process interrelationships. In Summary it includes all diagrams
related to a process definition that allows for understanding what the business
process is doing (and not how).
Business Process Redesign (BPR)
The process of redesigning business practice models including the exchange of data
and services amongst the stakeholders (i.e. finance, merchandising, production,
distribution) involved in the lifecycle of a client's product.
A Business Rule is a business condition under which data items are created, related
Party to which merchandise is sold.
A 'buyer's market' is considered to exist when goods can easily be secured and when
the economic forces of business tend to cause goods to be priced at the purchaser's
estimate of value. In other words, a state of trade favourable to the buyer, with
relatively large supply and low prices.